Archive for the Electronic Category

Intel’s first 32-nanometer CPU specifications set explicit performance Xiangjie

Posted in Electronic with tags on September 27, 2009 by thhcckspace

x86 processor micro-architecture development has entered a new milestone, based on the new 32nm manufacturing process Intel Westmere processor family, code-named "Clarkdale" entry-level dual-core products to the mainstream, will be further integrated 3D graphics core, once the total PC market, 7 into a share of the IGP chipset would be history. While Intel 32nm manufacturing process Westmere processor will be listed on the first quarter of next year, but how can make readers HKEPC disappointed, therefore recruited first to the territory’s first Intel Core i3 processor and motherboard engineering samples of H55, and ascendants Intel IGP platform for comparison tests:
Although the "Intel Clarkdale processor, built-in graphics core," This sentence is not inappropriate, but in fact, its graphics core is not embedded in core x86 computing into, but the core x86 and graphics core with Multi-Chip Package encapsulated in the together, of which only the core using 32nm process x86, graphics core and the use of 45nm process.
In the design of Nehalem micro-architecture, Intel has joined Building Block scalable modular design, you can easily provide specific to each server, desktop computer and mobile computer market, the structure optimized version, this way, Intel will be able without to make any changes, the introduction of cover a variety of price, performance and energy-efficient performance processor, through changes in processor core, Cache cache, built-in graphics core, system memory controller and Quick Path Interconnect system specification portfolio to meet the different market needs.
Westmere processor is based on Nehalem micro-architecture to make improvements, it is also true with Building Block modular design, Intel Clarkdale processor core x86 computing a total of two processor cores, 4MB L3 Cache cache, but take away the memory controller and PCI – E controllers, and use QPI communication protocols to connect graphics core.
Graphics core built-in memory controller and PCI-E controller, in fact, put it bluntly, that is, Clarkdale processor to IGP Northbridge chips directly within the processor package.
However, why Clarkdale processors do not directly embedded in the graphics core x86 computing into the core? According to Intel President and CEO Paul Otellini previously said in public that deal with the core and graphics team is separate from the core research and development, this approach can not only speed up the listing of the agenda, and to make "Tick-Tock" strategy of silicon and micro-architecture more flexible.
Paul also further illustrate, the first start of the season scheduled for launch in 2010 is the 45nm manufacturing process Havendale processors, x86 processing cores and the GPU are 45nm manufacturing process, but because of the core of 32nm process Westmere mature earlier than expected, so the 45nm manufacturing process Intel Havendale canceled, direct update processing core to the 32nm Westmere, while retaining the graphics core 45nm manufacturing process, so that Clarkdale listed in advance.
Future, the processing core and graphics separately from the core R & D team will continue to research and development, when the new graphics core and the completion of R & D, Intel may launch a new graphics chips to replace the old chip, and in line with the current x86 processors with packaging, the immediate view of the market , so that technological upgrading of Intel’s products more flexible and modular design to play a Building Block advantage.
Clarkdale graphics core is still based on GMA Architecture
Clarkdale graphics core based on G965/GM965’s GMA (Graphics Media Accelerator) architecture, hardware support for DirectX 10, Shader Model 4.0 and OpenGL 2.0 specification, graphics core with Unified Shader design and implementation of each group of Execution Units can Vertex, Geometry and Pixel Shader instruction.
Ascendants G45 chip GMA X4500HD graphics core based on GMA X3000 architecture made a lot of improvements, including improved efficiency of Thread Dispatch cell sorting, Execute Unit improved Multi-Threaded implementation capacity in order to reduce high frequency operation the delay time, while supporting longer Shader instruction .
In addition, GMA X4500HD also been upgraded Texutre Sampler and Pixel Operations unit, supports all types of Sampler Filtering, including past GMA graphics core does not support Dynamic Anisotropic Filtering, and add 16Bit U × RM Blending, while the 32Bit Fixed Trillinear Filtering and 16Bit Float Filtering performance than 1-fold increase over previous generations.
Clarkdale’s graphics core is based on GMA X4500HD then make appropriate improvements, including the number of each Mathbox of Execute Unit upgrade from 5 to 6, so that the number of Execute Unit was increased from 15 to 18, Unified Execution Unit of the Cache size as well as further upgrading to meet the needs of the rising number of Execute Unit. In addition, Clarkdale mathematical algorithms have made some improvements in this area will be in the OpenGL graphics program to obtain significant gain.
As the Clarkdale graphics core is still based on GMA graphics architecture supports only Single Sampled Rendering, and therefore still unable to provide anti-aliasing AA; does not support 32Bit Floatp-Point Filtering and RGB32 Rendertarget and so on, although the above functions are non-DX9 and DX10 specifications of the essential agreement, but the face of GPU aircraft’s full supportive, Clarkdale graphical specification seems to be rather backward.
Clarkdale graphics core built-in PCI-E graphics interface controller, where the focus is to provide a switchable graphics support functions, can be built-in graphics core and an independent graphics card to switch between the real-time, up to the energy saving effect, as driven process has not yet support, not yet tested this item.